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An Operational Anthropogenic CO2 emissions Monitoring & Verification Support Capacity, by B. Pinty, G. Janssens-Maenhout, M. Dowell, H. Zunker, T. Brunhes, P. Ciais, D. Dee, H.A.C. Denier van der Gon, H. Dolman, M. Drinkwater, R. Engelen, M. Heimann, K. Holmlund, R. Husband, A. Kentarchos, Y. Meijer, P. Palmer, with maps provided by D. Guizzardi, S. Jonkers and J. Kuenen and reviewed by F. Chevallier, Y. Wang, G. Balsamo, D. Crisp, S. Eggleston, D. Terblanche, P. Rayner, J. van Aardenne.

This DG GROW - JRC report serves as a first step in defining and developing a European operational capacity for monitoring and verifying anthropogenic CO2 emissions with atmospheric observations of in-situ or space-born measurements making use of an atmospheric model. The report provides an insight into the underpinning requirements and foundational building blocks required and into the responsibility and long-term commitment in building this system for the greater benefit of European and international community. The system would provide European policy makers with a unique and independent source of actionable information, which would strengthen the role of the EU as global player in climate negotiations, helping to verify the five-yearly global stocktakes, which the Paris Agreement plans from 2023 onwards.

More information on:
Download the report: CO2 Monitoring and Verification Support Capacity

Fossil CO2 & GHG emissions of all world countries, 2017.

The Paris Agreement (2015) acknowledges the need to ensure environmental integrity, creates a transparency framework and plans 5-yearly global stock takes from 2023 onwards. The Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) estimates CO2 and other greenhouse gases for all world countries and aims to contribute to an enhanced transparency.

EDGARv4.3.2_FT2016 dataset revealed that Global CO2 emissions are for the third year in a row plateauing with no further increase to a total of 35.8 Gton CO2 in 2016. The 0.3% increase in 2016 compared to 2015 is due to extra day in the leap year of 2016. CO2 emissions in the US (with 14% share of global total) reduced with 2%. Compared to 2015 there was a status quo in emissions of 2016 in China (29.2 share of global total) with -0.3% change and in the 28 EU Member States (9.6% of global total) with +0.2% change, respectively. The EU28 emissions mainly decreased over the past two decades reaching reduction levels in 2016 of 20.8% compared to 1990 and 17.9% compared to 2005. This yields since 2015 a constant EU share to the global total of 9.6%. In 2016 the EU28 emitted 3.4 Gton CO2, which corresponds to 6.8 ton CO2/cap/yr. This was obtained by a reduction of the 1.1% increase in 2015 compared to 2014 down to a 0.2% in 2016 compared to 2015.

While information for energy-related activities are available with recent updates (including 2016), no such fast updates are available for agricultural activities, but the agriculture showed historically to change much slower than the other sectors. As such, the global GHG total anthropogenic emissions (excluding land-use, land-use change, forestry and large scale biomass burning) are estimated to range between 40 and 55 Gton CO2eq/yr over the last 5 years. GHG emissions are determined by the fossil CO2 share and increased almost steadily over the entire period 1970-2012 from 24 to 47 Gton CO2eq/yr, yielding and increase in total GHG emission of 91%. The per capita GHG emissions decreased in the 1980s and 1990s till a minimum of 5.7 ton CO2eq/cap/yr but increased with 13% from 2002 to 2012 to reach 6.5 ton CO2eq/cap/yr. The share of CH4 and N2O emissions on the global total are in 1970 only 27% and 7% respectively and further decreased to shares of 19% and 6% for CH4 and N2O in 2012.

EDGAR's booklet on "Fossil CO2 and GHG emissions for all world countries" has been released with webheadline on the JRC Science Hub:

For full documentation we refer to: Janssens-Maenhout, G., Crippa, M., Guizzardi, D., Muntean, M., Schaaf, E., Olivier, J.G.J., Peters, J.A.H.W., Schure, K.M.: Fossil CO2 and GHG emissions of all world countries, EUR 28766 EN,Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2017, ISBN 978-92-79-73207-2, doi:10.2760/709792, JRC107877.

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Global Emissions EDGAR v4.3.2: part I: the three main greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O.

In EDGARv4.3.2 emissions are calculated for greenhouse gases and air pollutants per sector and country in support of atmospheric scientists and policy makers.

For the energy related sectors the activity data are mainly based on the energy balance statistics of IEA (2014) (Internet:, whereas the activity data for the agricultural sectors originate mainly from FAO (2014) (Internet:*/E).

For full documentation we refer to: Janssens-Maenhout, G., Crippa, M., Guizzardi, D., Muntean, M., Schaaf, E., Dentener, F., Bergamaschi, P., Pagliari, V., Olivier, J. G. J., Peters, J. A. H. W., van Aardenne, J. A., Monni, S., Doering, U., and Petrescu, A. M. R.: EDGAR v4.3.2 Global Atlas of the three major Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the period 1970–2012, Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,, in review, 2017.

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The EDGAR v4.3.2_VOC_SPEC global speciated NMVOC emissions dataset.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) include a large number of chemical species differing for their chemical composition and properties. The disaggregation of total NMVOC emissions into species is thus required to better model ozone and secondary organic aerosols formation. Region- and sector-specific NMVOC speciation profiles are here developed and applied to the EDGARv4.3.2 database covering the years 1970-2012, with the same sector resolution as the total NMVOC. The complete documentation on the speciation profiles and on the methodology used can be found in Huang et al. (2017).

Reference: Huang, G., Brook, R., Crippa, M., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Schieberle, C., Dore, C., Guizzardi, D., Muntean, M., Schaaf, E., and Friedrich, R.: Speciation of anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds: a global gridded data set for 1970–2012, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7683-7701,, 2017.

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Trends in Global CO2 Emissions.
by J.G.J. Olivier, G. Janssens-Maenhout, M. Muntean,. J.H.A.W. Peters, November 2016

2015, the year of the landmark Paris Agreement was remarkable. Not only was 2015 the hottest year since records began in 1880, but top emitter China started to curb carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. As a result, global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production and other processes decreased in 2015 by 0.1% compared to 2014. China (with 29% share in global total) and the United States (with 14% share) gave an example by effectively reducing their CO2 emissions by 0.7% and 2.6%, respectively, in 2015 compared to 2014. Also emissions in the Russian Federation (5% share) and Japan (3.5% share) decreased by 3.4% and 2.2%, respectively. However, the European Union (EU-28) (10% share) and India (7% share) report increases of 1.3% and 5.1%, respectively. Taking into account the uncertainty in the trend we conclude that in 2015 global CO2 emissions for these sources have stalled. Since global population growth is 1.2% per year, stalling of global emissions means per definition a 1.2% decrease in global per capita CO2 emissions from 5.0 ton CO2/cap in 2014 to 4.9 ton CO2/cap in 2015. On a global scale, the slowdown in emissions since 2012 has lasted for four years now and also reflects structural changes in the global economy, such as improvements in energy efficiency and in the energy mix in major emitting countries, as anticipated in previous CO2 reports of Olivier et al. (2015, 2014). However, further mitigation of fossil-fuel use is called for to achieve the large absolute decreases in global greenhouse gas emissions that are necessary to meet the Paris Agreement's goal to keep global warming to well below 2degC. The reductions needed to meet this target are still achievable through further deployment of mitigation measures, provided that the deployment is implemented both at large scale and fast. The Clean Energy Package, proposed by the European Commission on 30th November 2016 is a good example in this direction.

More info can be found in the CO2 report 2016.
Timeseries can be downloaded from CO2 time series 1990-2015 per region/country and CO2 time series 1990-2015 per capita for world countries and CO2 emissions per GDP for each country 1990-2015.
CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel use and cement production in the top 5 emitting countries and the EU

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