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Fossil CO2 and GHG emissions of all world countries, 2019 report

The global GHG emissions trend has increased since the beginning of the 21st century in comparison to the three previous decades, mainly due to the increase in CO2 emissions from China and the other emerging economies. As a result, the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases substantially increased enhancing the natural greenhouse effect, which may negatively affect the life on the Earth. These issues are internationally addressed in the framework of UNFCCC; countries are developing national emissions inventories and propose/implement actions to mitigate GHG emissions. CO2 emissions, which are the main responsible for global warming are still increasing at world level despite climate change mitigation agreements. However, CO2 emissions within the EU28 have decreased in the last two decades. Human related activities largely influence the total CO2 emissions – particularly, power generation and road transport but also emissions from combustion in the residential and commercial sectors play a key role. Despite decreasing trends for total EU28 CO2 emissions, CO2 emissions per capita within the EU28 are still higher than the world average value.

Main findings

Global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels combustion and processes further increased by 1.9% in 2018 compared to the previous year reaching a total of 37.9 Gt CO2. In 2018, China, the United States, India, the EU28, Russia and Japan - the world’s largest CO2 emitters - together accounted for 51% of the population, 65% of global Gross Domestic Product World Bank, 80% of total global fossil fuel consumption and emitted 67.5% of total global fossil CO2. Emissions from these five countries and the EU28 show different changes in 2018 compared to 2017: the largest increase in the emissions between 2017 and 2018 is found for India (+7.2%), followed by Russia (+3.5%), the United States (+2.9%) and China (+1.5%). By comparison, both the EU28 (-1.9%) and Japan (-1.7%) reduced their fossil CO2 emissions. Compared to 1990, EU28 fossil CO2 emissions were 21.6% lower in 2018 at 3.46 Gt CO2, representing 9.1% of the global share and equivalent to 6.8 t CO2/cap/yr in per-capita terms which is above the global per capita average (4.97 t CO2/cap/yr).
Global GHG emissions are dominated by fossil CO2 and increased steadily over the entire period 1990-2015 by about 50% from 32.8 to 49.1 Gt CO2eq/yr. Per capita GHG emissions decreased in the 1980s and 1990s to a minimum of 5.7 t CO2eq/cap/yr but have then increased by 13.4% from 2000 to 2015 to reach 6.7 t CO2eq/cap/yr.

Fossil CO2 and GHG emissions (2018-2015 vs 1990)

How to cite

Crippa, M., Oreggioni, G., Guizzardi, D., Muntean, M., Schaaf, E., Lo Vullo, E., Solazzo, E., Monforti-Ferrario, F., Olivier, J.G.J., Vignati, E., Fossil CO2 and GHG emissions of all world countries - 2019 Report, EUR 29849 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2019, ISBN 978-92-76-11100-9, doi:10.2760/687800, JRC117610.

Data download

edgar_fossil_CO2_GHG_booklet2019

Fossil CO2 per capita emissions (1970 to 2018)

Fossil CO2 and GHG emissions by country

The data are presented in the table below for key years, to allow easy comparison of different countries.
"Country names are consistent with the Interinstitutional Style Guide of the European Commission available at http://publications.europa.eu/code/en/en-370100.htm; the “Short name” definition listed in the "List of countries, territories and currencies" table at http://publications.europa.eu/code/en/en-5000500.htm has been used (as of 16/07/2019).
EDGAR data are expressed in metric units.

CO2 total emissions - CO2 per capita emissions - CO2 per GDP emissions - GHG total emissions - GHG per capita emissions - GHG per GDP emissions

Country
unit
1990
Mton
2000
Mton
2005
Mton
2010
Mton
2015
Mton
2017
Mton
2018
Mton
2018
% world total
GLOBAL TOTAL22637.1325600.6629911.6633836.3536311.9837179.6537887.22100.00
United States5063.865915.635946.615555.445225.395128.445275.4813.92
EU284408.534121.664250.763922.473492.043524.983457.289.13
China2397.513672.126264.769126.9410820.8011087.0111255.8829.71
Russia2355.391599.771623.001664.671694.501688.411748.354.61
Japan1149.371241.541276.871197.421227.731219.691198.553.16
India594.85986.621210.761750.562286.822445.882621.926.92
Germany1018.06871.07837.33816.40786.44787.95752.651.99
Canada454.70557.73579.61565.85589.78595.02594.201.57
United Kingdom584.22549.20558.48500.56413.02379.38371.970.98
International Shipping371.80498.58572.17663.23657.32683.81697.491.84
South Korea270.45483.57516.32597.73638.78675.44695.361.84
Italy, San Marino and the Holy See430.58459.85497.69426.78354.38355.72344.810.91
France and Monaco386.33402.24408.43379.45323.36330.86323.280.85
Mexico290.47397.06448.58479.21487.73507.40495.781.31
Brazil228.63364.39381.16445.25529.67506.90500.091.32
Ukraine783.23358.13354.46308.86213.27195.48196.840.52
International Aviation258.94355.82422.78457.66529.69559.25564.611.49
Australia277.45353.78391.57412.83401.95411.57415.311.10
Iran204.51351.73468.25570.04623.25694.47727.811.92
South Africa312.46345.23433.19464.87477.51472.47477.251.26
Spain and Andorra233.80315.48372.65291.62274.81282.18276.050.73
Poland371.39312.38316.58328.39304.54327.44333.860.88
Indonesia162.75294.95360.19418.28489.34531.97557.531.47
Saudi Arabia172.85264.17339.63478.23608.80631.74624.991.65
Taiwan124.23229.63269.63271.52264.84283.98284.550.75
Turkey149.96227.41246.00309.08365.16414.57417.051.10
Netherlands161.28176.54181.43185.52169.00165.92162.290.43
Thailand92.98171.51225.59245.32271.65278.27281.040.74
Argentina112.44150.57165.48191.22212.00213.71210.160.55
Malaysia57.84133.75182.50216.59249.58246.77257.840.68
Venezuela102.46132.59152.48189.01158.54133.13120.210.32
Czechia162.84130.69127.13120.69107.60110.41110.940.29
Kazakhstan253.45126.34172.77236.65258.83273.62309.250.82
Egypt90.78125.92176.44211.75238.04248.86250.660.66
Belgium116.00124.88118.70115.89103.97103.82105.750.28
Uzbekistan123.38121.17116.38107.45104.91104.08101.900.27
Pakistan64.31107.82130.35150.50168.18189.31196.180.52
Nigeria74.7299.95101.2891.0496.59107.57110.690.29
Greece79.2097.08104.8590.0070.7973.1472.400.19
Romania187.1896.93104.5182.5879.2481.0880.170.21
United Arab Emirates56.9288.38122.40171.86202.35208.09214.110.57
Iraq69.2686.5289.46126.06160.50172.63188.100.50
Algeria67.9784.4598.77116.41156.27157.33165.330.44
Philippines43.7076.4881.7887.73119.26143.42147.860.39
North Korea131.3773.7479.5752.7925.7629.9231.590.08
Austria62.9368.1081.0175.3269.0672.4671.440.19
Portugal43.6864.5168.0953.5352.3656.5252.610.14
Colombia52.3161.8460.6766.5779.5386.2390.050.24
Israel and Palestine, State of35.2959.3762.1572.1966.8967.3667.060.18
Sweden58.1258.3955.8953.3544.1845.1444.600.12
Hungary72.0058.3759.9651.9447.2451.6052.140.14
Finland57.2457.9658.3665.8445.8346.1948.800.13
Belarus109.0257.8161.4266.8860.4561.5564.260.17
Vietnam20.1955.5399.24154.68202.77242.46271.470.72
Kuwait32.6154.8575.3886.3695.5295.09100.340.26
Denmark53.6554.0551.4849.0634.0433.1133.130.09
Chile32.9053.2458.6871.9384.5788.8091.140.24
Serbia and Montenegro66.3950.8161.5059.8557.0759.1058.970.16
Libya37.1449.9256.9361.6151.7858.3056.480.15
Bulgaria82.2747.7452.0348.6448.4747.4744.590.12
Syria32.8845.6758.4862.1329.3530.0228.940.08
Singapore31.6145.2742.9451.0051.3455.5255.910.15
Switzerland and Liechtenstein44.9644.9047.1646.4740.2242.1740.940.11
Ireland32.8544.2347.2841.2737.8437.7637.210.10
Norway37.3242.8344.1746.7545.8249.8350.470.13
Slovakia60.5542.3542.1739.6334.6037.8938.090.10
Hong Kong34.1841.1441.9242.6944.6345.3945.310.12
Turkmenistan45.6339.3552.9961.6074.5877.5284.140.22
Morocco22.3933.4444.3751.9861.5366.6368.310.18
New Zealand23.8933.3136.6933.9935.8537.3536.410.10
Qatar17.0031.7443.1769.6097.83103.81102.910.27
Cuba37.1128.9326.1733.7830.9927.0427.550.07
Peru21.0428.9331.6445.1153.7054.3857.380.15
Azerbaijan58.0828.0730.4924.7532.7031.6634.700.09
Bangladesh13.8726.7138.8458.5480.0986.2292.890.25
Oman15.5825.3233.1352.5978.8081.3085.210.22
Ecuador17.5621.8428.3337.8344.0842.3944.390.12
Tunisia14.7721.2023.3927.9330.1531.8432.930.09
Dominican Republic8.0219.7119.4021.3723.4424.7025.180.07
Croatia25.1819.6023.6421.4518.5519.5219.440.05
Trinidad and Tobago12.6618.5431.0338.7236.3635.9835.950.09
Bahrain11.9917.7623.3728.8433.7634.9434.230.09
Estonia38.4716.9619.6422.1019.8223.1424.330.06
Angola11.3016.6116.2224.0232.7432.0530.050.08
Slovenia16.6215.6718.3017.8914.3615.4615.550.04
Yemen6.8915.5021.7827.1814.2911.5411.770.03
Jordan10.2115.4919.7820.6125.8226.1626.040.07
Lebanon5.9815.2416.5120.5625.1325.4325.590.07
Zimbabwe17.1814.5011.3910.0012.7812.8113.040.03
Bosnia and Herzegovina24.5614.3316.8922.1923.9627.5227.440.07
Lithuania35.3211.7914.0813.8213.4214.3214.420.04
Sri Lanka4.1911.3414.4213.6821.4124.8423.810.06
Jamaica7.5310.2210.637.457.407.897.950.02
Myanmar/Burma4.8610.0511.188.5325.1831.5532.650.09
Cameroon4.819.819.2710.8113.4714.1514.480.04
Guatemala3.879.5911.7011.6816.8818.1920.510.05
Mongolia13.159.0511.0814.3717.3818.4019.530.05
North Macedonia11.209.059.719.177.948.188.070.02
Luxembourg11.758.8412.1611.249.349.619.950.03
Kenya6.478.618.8513.1816.9620.5020.960.06
Bolivia6.538.279.9914.8319.6722.2222.810.06
Latvia20.147.568.248.917.707.827.820.02
Côte d’Ivoire3.027.036.547.5811.5913.4714.020.04
Cyprus4.547.027.887.986.377.537.460.02
Moldova31.966.798.148.368.247.898.620.02
Gabon6.176.616.556.066.496.546.590.02
Ghana3.196.127.3311.6317.0519.5220.090.05
Sudan and South Sudan5.546.0210.7816.6718.9220.6121.090.06
El Salvador2.635.816.946.737.407.777.900.02
Uruguay3.895.455.506.386.746.706.930.02
Curaçao5.475.394.786.207.388.368.430.02
Georgia34.745.374.986.2310.1411.0010.890.03
Panama2.745.217.209.4411.5311.2711.750.03
Costa Rica2.915.106.317.257.688.508.820.02
Honduras2.375.067.858.069.9710.0510.350.03
Brunei3.404.945.187.366.516.816.930.02
Kyrgyzstan23.704.865.486.5610.689.5310.130.03
Congo2.404.544.455.425.895.927.060.02
Botswana2.824.184.473.507.177.687.430.02
Senegal2.404.035.807.058.3810.3710.700.03
Paraguay2.263.763.945.186.357.287.530.02
Nicaragua1.943.764.314.635.536.176.250.02
Ethiopia2.393.715.336.8613.4716.4216.800.04
Armenia20.703.664.544.465.015.215.790.02
Nepal1.073.383.304.816.549.9510.310.03
Albania6.583.264.204.594.714.894.800.01
Tanzania2.103.095.877.1412.9013.0413.430.04
Iceland2.352.873.173.683.834.074.090.01
Tajikistan12.272.803.263.135.385.645.930.02
Mauritania0.682.582.912.062.693.143.240.01
Equatorial Guinea0.102.533.374.363.483.193.310.01
Mauritius1.192.452.983.683.994.284.380.01
Papua New Guinea2.312.264.383.083.703.823.920.01
Puerto Rico2.062.192.271.842.792.953.180.01
Malta2.352.162.772.631.701.541.510.00
Palau2.152.121.732.111.201.241.270.00
Réunion1.012.022.372.962.682.902.980.01
Cambodia0.412.002.695.018.6710.4510.850.03
Democratic Republic of the Congo3.441.972.593.053.832.932.890.01
Zambia2.951.952.462.244.445.055.170.01
Namibia1.541.912.503.094.124.454.510.01
New Caledonia1.621.882.454.955.036.927.340.02
Eswatini0.601.671.542.051.141.261.230.00
Barbados0.781.652.162.343.173.083.320.01
Bahamas1.521.632.071.753.003.063.080.01
Haiti1.151.612.232.363.453.623.650.01
Mozambique1.181.602.703.686.599.599.880.03
Benin0.421.572.845.115.997.297.540.02
Suriname0.911.491.691.722.122.172.250.01
Madagascar0.701.422.222.203.824.334.430.01
Djibouti1.101.291.471.130.931.021.050.00
Togo0.771.271.332.542.432.862.940.01
Macao0.981.201.621.181.101.261.290.00
Uganda0.641.171.683.774.695.385.490.01
Fiji1.031.142.171.201.221.281.320.00
Guinea1.071.091.121.392.522.903.000.01
Afghanistan2.551.091.065.649.8010.1910.480.03
Martinique0.941.061.121.342.372.442.460.01
Guadeloupe0.871.001.031.192.252.332.350.01
Burkina Faso0.380.901.041.873.123.583.710.01
Guyana0.340.800.730.791.671.861.920.01
Malawi0.460.791.441.471.441.631.670.00
Sierra Leone0.740.730.490.731.211.401.450.00
Niger0.870.700.801.432.052.182.270.01
Eritrea0.210.680.690.470.690.840.860.00
Laos0.210.651.051.722.503.453.610.01
Rwanda0.530.620.750.790.951.101.120.00
French Polynesia0.840.550.790.890.540.560.570.00
Somalia0.690.540.760.830.860.920.940.00
French Guiana0.370.520.490.530.720.740.770.00
Mali0.390.500.550.580.901.071.100.00
Aruba0.300.450.470.500.960.980.990.00
Bhutan0.210.450.511.321.241.531.550.00
Seychelles0.290.410.680.930.890.950.980.00
Maldives0.070.380.480.880.820.850.870.00
Gibraltar0.140.340.410.470.570.700.680.00
Timor-Leste0.130.340.270.250.290.290.290.00
Liberia0.420.330.470.571.061.201.240.00
Belize0.190.310.440.250.440.440.450.00
Bermuda0.340.280.280.360.430.440.440.00
Burundi0.210.280.310.230.290.310.320.00
Central African Republic0.160.280.250.350.450.460.470.00
Guinea-Bissau0.200.260.290.400.380.430.440.00
Antigua and Barbuda0.220.240.280.360.620.640.640.00
Western Sahara0.140.210.230.270.250.270.280.00
The Gambia0.150.210.230.470.510.580.600.00
Chad0.270.200.380.420.680.710.700.00
Saint Lucia0.080.170.160.210.360.370.370.00
Cayman Islands0.150.170.190.280.490.500.510.00
Solomon Islands0.130.170.190.180.130.130.130.00
Cape Verde0.050.160.230.330.881.001.040.00
Lesotho0.100.160.170.530.690.710.720.00
Tonga0.060.110.120.180.120.120.120.00
Samoa0.130.110.120.120.130.130.130.00
Grenada0.070.070.130.140.280.290.290.00
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines0.040.070.090.110.180.180.180.00
Vanuatu0.130.060.060.120.080.080.080.00
Dominica0.030.060.050.080.130.130.130.00
São Tomé and Príncipe0.050.050.060.130.140.150.150.00
Comoros0.050.050.110.130.190.200.210.00
Cook Islands0.040.040.060.060.040.040.040.00
Saint Kitts and Nevis0.030.040.060.140.240.240.240.00
Saint Pierre and Miquelon0.150.030.030.040.080.080.080.00
British Virgin Islands0.030.030.030.070.150.150.150.00
Kiribati0.020.020.030.050.030.030.030.00
Anguilla0.010.020.010.020.030.030.030.00
Falkland Islands0.010.010.020.020.040.040.040.00
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha0.010.010.010.010.010.020.020.00
Turks and Caicos Islands0.010.010.010.110.170.170.170.00
Faroes0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00
Greenland0.000.000.630.670.520.540.530.00

Sources and References

BP 2015-2018 data of the BP Statistical Review of World Energy, https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy.html, June 2019.

IEA energy balance statistics for 1970-2015 (2017) (http://www.iea.org/).

Olivier, J.G.J. and J.A.H.W. Peters (2019), Trend in Global CO2 and GHG Emissions - 2019 Report, PBL Report, 2019.

IFA 2013-2016 urea consumption and production statistics, https://www.fertilizer.org/, June 2019.

IMF/WEO data of annual GDP growth for missing data in the WB dataset for recent years. World Economic Outlook Update April 2019. International Monetary Fund, 2019.

UNDP population statistics (2019), World Population Prospects (WPP), The 2019 Revision Report United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2019.

USGS: 2010-2018 data of cement, lime, ammonia and ferroalloys of the USGS Commodity Statistics (June 2019), (https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/), 2019.

WB data of GDP (expressed in 1000 US dollar, and adjusted to the Purchasing Power Parity of 2011) for 1990-2018, World Bank, July 2019.

World Steel Association, worldsteel, Steel Statistical Yearbook 2018, https://www.worldsteel.org/en/dam/jcr:e5a8eda5-4b46-4892-856b-00908b5ab492/SSY_2018.pdf), November 2018.

Info

For more information or data JRC-EDGAR@ec.europa.eu