The global GHG emissions trend has increased since the beginning of the 21st century in comparison to the three previous decades, mainly due to the increase in CO2 emissions from China and the other emerging economies. As a result, the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases substantially increased enhancing the natural greenhouse effect, which may negatively affect the life on the Earth. These issues are internationally addressed in the framework of UNFCCC; countries are developing national emissions inventories and propose/implement actions to mitigate GHG emissions. CO2 emissions, which are the main responsible for global warming are still increasing at world level despite climate change mitigation agreements.
EDGAR provides an independent estimate of greenhouse gases for each world country, based on a robust and consistent methodology stemming from the latest IPCC guidelines and most recent activity data. Following the latest update released in September 2020, emission data are now available for fossil CO2 for each country for the time period 1970-2019 while national emissions for other GHGs are available for 1970-2015.
Global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels combustion and processes further increased by 0.9% in 2019, about half of the previous annual growth rate (+1.9% in 2018), reaching a total of 38.0 Gt CO2. In 2019, China, the United States, India, the EU27+UK, Russia and Japan - the world’s largest CO2 emitters - together accounted for 51% of the population, 62.5% of global Gross Domestic Product, 62% of total global fossil fuel consumption and emitted 67% of total global fossil CO2. Emissions from these five countries and the EU28 show different changes in 2019 compared to 2018: the largest relative increase is found for China (+3.4%), followed by India (+1.6%). On the contrary, the EU27+UK (-3.8%), the United States (-2.6%), Japan (-2.1%) and Russia (-0.8%) reduced their fossil CO2 emissions.
Global fossil CO2 emissions per unit of GDP continued their decreasing trend (-1.7% in 2019 and -33.8% between 2019 and 1990) reaching the average value of 0.298 tCO2/kUSD/yr, while per capita emissions remained substantially stable in 2019 to 4.93 tCO2/capita/yr, confirming a 15.9% increase from 1990.
EU27+UK total fossil CO2 emissions have decreased over the past two decades and are in 2019 25.1% lower than in 1990 and 22.2% lower than in 2005. EU27+UK emissions share on the global total also decreased from 9.6% to 8.7% between 2015 and 2019. Per capita emissions in 2019 amounted to 6.47 t CO2/cap/yr, still above the global per capita average, while emissions per unit of GDP decreased to 0.144 tCO2/kUSD/yr, less than half the global average.
How to cite
Crippa, M., Guizzardi, D., Muntean, M., Schaaf, E., Solazzo, E., Monforti-Ferrario, F., Olivier, J.G.J., Vignati, E., Fossil CO2 emissions of all world countries - 2020 Report, EUR 30358 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2020, ISBN 978-92-76-21515-8, doi:10.2760/143674, JRC121460.
Fossil CO2 emissions by country
The data are presented in the table below for key years, to allow easy comparison of different countries.
"Country names" are consistent with the Interinstitutional Style Guide of the European Commission, the “Short name” definition listed in the "List of countries, territories and currencies" table has been used (as of 07/07/2020)
EDGAR data are expressed in metric units.
Sources and references
BP 2018-2019 data of the BP Statistical Review of World Energy, https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy.html, June 2020.
IEA energy balance statistics for 1970-2015 (2017) (http://www.iea.org).
Olivier, J.G.J. and Peters, J.A.H.W.: Trend in Global CO2 and GHG Emissions – 2020 Report, PBL Report, forthcoming, 2020.
IFA (2020) urea consumption (updates 1970-2017) and production (updates 2017-2018) statistics.
IMF/WEO data of annual GDP growth for missing data in the WB dataset for recent years. World Economic Outlook Update April 2019. International Monetary Fund, 2019.
UNDP: population statistics (2019), World Population Prospects (WPP), The 2019 Revision Report United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2019.
USGS: data of cement, lime, ammonia and ferroalloys of the USGS Commodity Statistics (June 2020), (https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity), 2020.
WB data of GDP (expressed in 1000 US dollar, and adjusted to the Purchasing Power Parity of 2017) for 1990-2019, World Bank, July 2020.
World Steel Association, worldsteel, Steel Statistical Yearbook 2020 (pdf), 2020.
For more information or data: JRC-EDGAR@ec.europa.eu