GHG emissions of all world countries

2021 report

Introduction

Since the beginning of 21st century and until 2019, global GHG emissions had followed an increasing trend mainly due to the increase in CO2 emissions from China and the other emerging economies. As a result, the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases substantially increased enhancing the natural greenhouse effect, which may negatively affect the life on the Earth. Regardless the slowing down of global emissions in 2020 caused by the global COVID-19 pandemic, climate change remains an issue.

That is internationally addressed in the framework of UNFCCC; countries are developing national emissions inventories and propose/implement actions to mitigate GHG emissions. CO2 emissions, which are the main responsible for global warming are still increasing at world level despite climate change mitigation agreements.

EDGAR provides an independent estimate of greenhouse gases for each world country, based on a robust and consistent methodology stemming from the latest IPCC guidelines and most recent activity data. Following the latest update released in October 2021, emission data are now available for fossil CO2 for each country for the time period 1970-2020 while national emissions for other GHGs are available for 1970-2018.

2021 report
GHG emissions of all world countries

Main findings

Global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels combustion and processes decreased by 5.1% in 2020 ( they had increased by 0.9% in 2019), at 36.0 Gt CO2, just below the 36.2 Gt CO2 emission level registered in 2013.

In 2020, China, the United States, the EU27, India, Russia and Japan remained the world’s largest CO2 emitters - together they accounting for 49.5% of the population, 61.8% of global Gross Domestic Product, 65.2% of total global fossil fuel consumption and 66.7% of total global fossil CO2

Among these top six world emitters, only China has shown an increase in emissions in 2020 (+1.5%) while all others have decreased their emissions by different amounts: EU27 by 10.6%, United States by 9.9%, Japan by 6.8%, India by 5.9% and Russiaby 5.8%.

Regardless the important decrease of GDP observed in the majority of world countries global fossil CO2 emissions per unit of GDP continued their decreasing trend (-5.4% in 2020 and -35% between 2020 and 1990) reaching the average value of 0.282 tCO2/kUSD/yr. Per capita emissions also decreased in 2020, by 6.5% to a value of 4.62 tCO2/capita/yr, leading to a 8.2% increase from 1990.

EU27 total fossil CO2 emissions had already decreased over the past two decades and emissions in 2019 were 23.2% lower than in 1990 and 20.7% lower than in 2005(14). The COVID-19 pandemic brought the EU27 CO2 emissions to decline by 31.3% [31.5%] in comparison with 1990 and by 29.1% [29.3%] in comparison with 2005.

The EU27 share of the global total emissions decreased from 8.5% to 7.8% between 2015 and 2019 to fall to 7.3% in 2020. In 2020, the EU27 emitted 2.6 Gt CO2, corresponding to 5.9 t CO2 per person.


Fossil CO2 and GHG emissions (2018-2015 vs 1990)

How to cite

Crippa, M., Guizzardi, D., Solazzo, E., Muntean, M., Schaaf, E., Monforti-Ferrario, F., Banja, M., Olivier, J.G.J., Grassi, G., Rossi, S., Vignati, E.,GHG emissions of all world countries - 2021 Report, EUR 30831 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2021, ISBN 978-92-76-41547-3, doi:10.2760/173513, JRC126363

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Fossil CO2 per capita emissions (1970 to 2019)

Fossil CO2 emissions by country

The data are presented in the table below for key years, to allow easy comparison of different countries.

"Country names" are consistent with the Interinstitutional Style Guide of the European Commission, the "Short name" definition listed in the "List of countries, territories and currencies" table has been used (as of 20/07/2021)

EDGAR data are expressed in metric units.



Country 1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 2019 2020 2020 %
unit Mton Mton Mton Mton Mton Mton Mton % World Tot
EU27 3818.27 3576.99 3700.07 3424.58 3090.96 2932.56 2621.85 7.29
GLOBAL TOTAL 22727.88 25847.32 30170.03 34180.73 36385.95 37911.37 35962.87 100.00
Afghanistan 2.84 1.00 1.20 7.26 7.71 12.05 11.95 0.03
Albania 6.65 3.26 4.20 4.60 4.89 5.58 5.10 0.01
Algeria 68.00 83.73 98.61 116.53 161.48 176.63 163.47 0.45
Angola 11.30 16.61 15.98 23.84 32.61 24.46 22.51 0.06
Anguilla 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.00
Antigua and Barbuda 0.40 0.41 0.48 0.57 0.72 0.53 0.46 0.00
Argentina 108.15 150.87 165.90 191.83 210.72 188.74 176.51 0.49
Armenia 20.70 3.66 4.55 4.47 5.01 5.48 5.82 0.02
Aruba 0.53 0.84 1.11 1.01 1.17 0.85 0.74 0.00
Australia 278.20 354.76 386.37 408.46 397.48 413.77 386.44 1.07
Austria 62.71 67.98 81.54 74.99 68.93 71.00 63.69 0.18
Azerbaijan 54.64 28.06 30.49 24.76 32.80 35.16 33.89 0.09
Bahamas 2.76 3.15 2.44 2.67 2.82 2.18 1.89 0.01
Bahrain 11.99 17.77 23.37 28.84 33.60 36.27 36.67 0.10
Bangladesh 14.41 27.56 39.94 59.81 84.97 110.16 108.50 0.30
Barbados 1.28 1.43 1.50 1.57 1.68 1.30 1.14 0.00
Belarus 109.00 56.92 61.29 66.70 59.81 62.66 58.97 0.16
Belgium 116.63 125.74 119.34 115.51 102.76 99.35 84.08 0.23
Belize 0.30 0.40 0.40 0.45 0.58 0.46 0.40 0.00
Benin 0.42 1.57 2.84 5.10 5.80 8.14 7.35 0.02
Bermuda 0.63 0.46 0.53 0.65 0.60 0.57 0.50 0.00
Bhutan 0.17 0.35 0.50 0.88 1.22 1.47 1.46 0.00
Bolivia 6.54 8.30 9.91 14.77 19.43 24.01 20.64 0.06
Bosnia and Herzegovina 24.63 14.36 16.92 22.26 20.87 27.11 23.43 0.07
Botswana 2.83 4.19 4.47 3.51 7.21 7.56 7.05 0.02
Brazil 228.30 362.97 382.82 447.99 523.98 476.98 451.80 1.26
British Virgin Islands 0.04 0.08 0.10 0.14 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.00
Brunei 3.34 4.89 5.18 7.34 6.52 8.01 7.98 0.02
Bulgaria 79.13 47.75 52.07 48.65 48.66 42.98 38.01 0.11
Burkina Faso 0.39 1.03 1.25 2.05 3.48 3.61 3.25 0.01
Burundi 0.23 0.34 0.20 0.26 0.43 0.33 0.29 0.00
Cabo Verde 0.06 0.32 0.68 0.80 0.80 0.90 0.80 0.00
Cambodia 0.42 2.00 2.68 5.01 8.76 15.97 15.82 0.04
Cameroon 4.81 5.79 5.54 7.69 9.19 9.84 9.31 0.03
Canada 453.60 557.75 579.50 566.98 595.40 595.39 542.79 1.51
Cayman Islands 0.28 0.40 0.41 0.50 0.62 0.49 0.42 0.00
Central African Republic 0.19 0.34 0.35 0.38 0.40 0.40 0.35 0.00
Chad 0.28 0.29 0.51 0.47 0.92 0.86 0.82 0.00
Chile 33.01 53.42 58.88 72.06 84.05 90.58 84.56 0.24
China 2425.65 3705.67 6338.56 9296.49 10722.41 11503.86 11680.42 32.48
Colombia 52.53 61.71 60.92 66.82 85.45 92.62 90.25 0.25
Comoros 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.30 0.25 0.00
Congo 2.40 4.54 4.36 5.33 5.78 6.35 6.18 0.02
Cook Islands 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.06 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.00
Costa Rica 2.93 5.14 6.36 7.30 7.77 8.85 7.82 0.02
Côte d’Ivoire 3.03 7.06 6.55 7.58 11.49 12.53 12.10 0.03
Croatia 25.16 19.62 23.66 21.46 18.54 18.66 17.70 0.05
Cuba 38.54 28.95 26.18 30.63 27.90 26.18 22.94 0.06
Curaçao 2.67 5.67 6.03 4.44 4.73 3.18 2.76 0.01
Cyprus 4.44 6.91 7.79 7.85 6.75 7.16 6.27 0.02
Czechia 162.92 130.39 127.03 120.48 107.73 105.11 92.08 0.26
Democratic Republic of the Congo 3.44 1.97 2.59 3.05 3.57 3.48 3.23 0.01
Denmark 53.55 53.90 51.42 49.14 34.60 30.27 25.71 0.07
Djibouti 1.19 0.84 0.82 0.86 0.80 1.02 0.85 0.00
Dominica 0.05 0.11 0.13 0.15 0.18 0.18 0.15 0.00
Dominican Republic 8.04 19.01 18.80 20.82 23.82 28.06 29.09 0.08
Ecuador 17.59 21.89 28.38 38.63 42.58 40.01 33.28 0.09
Egypt 91.05 127.21 177.62 211.96 240.84 282.34 269.55 0.75
El Salvador 2.64 5.83 6.95 6.75 7.38 7.68 6.79 0.02
Equatorial Guinea 0.09 2.68 6.11 7.44 5.47 4.30 4.28 0.01
Eritrea 0.39 0.67 0.61 0.50 0.67 0.85 0.73 0.00
Estonia 36.08 16.97 19.66 22.09 19.63 16.22 14.37 0.04
Eswatini 0.96 2.56 2.75 2.91 1.49 1.57 1.46 0.00
Ethiopia 2.40 3.74 5.37 6.82 13.47 19.08 17.01 0.05
Falkland Islands 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.00
Faroes 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fiji 0.96 1.35 1.58 0.91 2.38 2.43 2.38 0.01
Finland 57.28 57.87 58.32 65.86 46.07 44.20 40.70 0.11
France and Monaco 385.48 401.75 407.89 378.43 329.52 319.61 279.99 0.78
French Guiana 0.64 0.46 0.52 0.65 0.58 0.52 0.46 0.00
French Polynesia 0.81 0.65 0.87 0.84 0.97 0.96 0.94 0.00
Gabon 6.17 6.61 6.39 5.96 6.45 6.24 5.95 0.02
Georgia 34.75 5.38 4.98 6.23 10.14 11.00 10.44 0.03
Germany 1018.99 878.37 843.21 818.07 787.56 702.20 636.88 1.77
Ghana 3.18 6.12 7.24 11.39 15.94 17.74 16.52 0.05
Gibraltar 0.14 0.34 0.41 0.47 0.59 0.79 0.72 0.00
Greece 79.09 97.09 104.85 90.02 70.56 72.50 56.13 0.16
Greenland 0.00 0.00 0.62 0.65 0.53 0.52 0.47 0.00
Grenada 0.12 0.17 0.19 0.23 0.28 0.21 0.18 0.00
Guadeloupe 1.50 1.69 1.75 1.99 2.08 1.82 1.59 0.00
Guatemala 3.92 9.68 11.74 11.71 17.18 22.85 19.62 0.05
Guinea 1.13 1.73 1.98 2.72 2.70 3.07 2.77 0.01
Guinea-Bissau 0.20 0.24 0.31 0.34 0.37 0.32 0.29 0.00
Guyana 0.62 1.30 1.15 1.43 2.01 1.73 1.52 0.00
Haiti 1.15 1.61 2.23 2.36 3.45 3.45 3.01 0.01
Honduras 2.37 5.06 7.89 8.24 10.34 12.26 10.63 0.03
Hong Kong 34.18 41.15 41.92 42.69 44.89 42.75 32.43 0.09
Hungary 72.17 58.38 60.04 51.96 47.32 50.44 49.41 0.14
Iceland 2.34 2.87 3.17 3.75 3.66 3.54 3.17 0.01
India 598.96 990.09 1213.92 1752.35 2249.09 2563.66 2411.73 6.71
Indonesia 164.58 297.43 361.72 402.92 514.05 645.42 568.27 1.58
International Aviation 258.31 354.52 420.26 457.47 530.38 615.89 337.12 0.94
International Shipping 371.28 498.43 571.50 662.89 660.11 773.71 764.82 2.13
Iran 204.82 352.77 467.95 575.31 626.87 685.92 690.24 1.92
Iraq 69.33 86.71 89.19 125.74 167.98 205.93 191.30 0.53
Ireland 32.89 44.41 47.49 41.69 38.30 36.62 32.65 0.09
Israel and Palestine, State of 35.33 59.46 63.90 74.29 71.76 69.53 62.42 0.17
Italy, San Marino and the Holy See 430.45 457.93 498.07 426.99 355.80 332.86 297.35 0.83
Jamaica 7.53 10.22 10.63 7.45 7.41 8.78 7.88 0.02
Japan 1162.69 1241.46 1272.65 1221.47 1245.43 1139.49 1061.77 2.95
Jordan 10.09 15.49 19.78 20.62 25.69 27.04 26.48 0.07
Kazakhstan 251.78 131.42 182.63 243.65 273.45 273.61 267.10 0.74
Kenya 6.48 8.62 8.87 13.21 17.56 19.04 16.41 0.05
Kiribati 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.00
Kuwait 32.62 54.86 75.24 86.20 99.94 98.35 89.97 0.25
Kyrgyzstan 23.70 4.87 5.50 6.58 10.67 10.94 11.46 0.03
Laos 0.23 0.98 1.50 3.02 12.43 41.99 41.84 0.12
Latvia 20.33 7.57 8.24 9.12 7.83 8.46 7.45 0.02
Lebanon 5.98 15.30 16.60 20.66 26.88 28.02 26.77 0.07
Lesotho 0.12 0.39 0.43 0.53 0.58 0.71 0.65 0.00
Liberia 0.45 0.47 0.75 0.84 1.20 1.39 1.26 0.00
Libya 37.15 49.92 56.83 61.26 51.48 57.49 52.61 0.15
Lithuania 35.32 11.80 14.11 13.95 13.43 13.91 13.55 0.04
Luxembourg 11.75 8.84 12.17 11.26 9.35 9.64 8.00 0.02
Macao 0.94 1.37 1.93 1.12 2.09 2.23 2.19 0.01
Madagascar 0.76 2.06 2.23 2.57 4.41 4.69 4.25 0.01
Malawi 0.73 1.65 1.76 2.14 1.43 1.52 1.38 0.00
Malaysia 57.51 132.52 183.09 217.11 253.00 264.68 262.17 0.73
Maldives 0.09 0.58 0.62 0.87 1.51 1.70 1.67 0.00
Mali 0.38 0.95 1.06 2.14 3.11 3.86 3.48 0.01
Malta 2.35 2.16 2.67 2.63 1.71 1.64 1.55 0.00
Martinique 1.59 1.89 1.88 2.04 1.94 2.04 1.77 0.00
Mauritania 0.72 1.23 1.68 2.25 2.75 2.95 2.67 0.01
Mauritius 1.19 2.45 2.98 3.68 4.00 4.00 3.63 0.01
Mexico 291.04 397.97 448.86 479.37 491.48 487.57 407.70 1.13
Moldova 31.96 6.82 8.28 8.48 8.20 8.25 8.49 0.02
Mongolia 13.15 9.05 11.12 14.59 17.62 38.42 38.23 0.11
Morocco 22.45 33.50 44.44 52.03 61.66 72.12 67.75 0.19
Mozambique 1.18 1.60 2.70 3.67 7.85 11.22 9.94 0.03
Myanmar/Burma 4.47 10.09 11.13 8.62 19.66 37.90 37.71 0.10
Namibia 1.73 1.91 2.56 3.16 4.19 4.32 4.01 0.01
Nepal 1.10 3.42 3.30 4.81 7.36 18.04 17.89 0.05
Netherlands 161.40 176.63 181.89 186.30 170.73 157.82 144.69 0.40
New Caledonia 1.57 2.59 3.14 3.60 4.56 7.40 7.32 0.02
New Zealand 23.90 33.60 36.98 34.02 35.75 37.31 33.03 0.09
Nicaragua 1.97 3.77 4.32 4.67 5.48 5.80 5.10 0.01
Niger 1.08 0.70 0.80 1.44 2.12 2.40 2.16 0.01
Nigeria 74.77 100.02 100.55 90.19 107.84 133.47 126.92 0.35
North Korea 132.02 73.90 79.86 52.99 27.99 32.40 32.24 0.09
North Macedonia 11.21 9.05 9.71 9.17 7.93 8.63 7.70 0.02
Norway 37.44 42.89 44.22 46.50 44.96 43.33 42.18 0.12
Oman 15.58 25.32 33.00 51.37 79.22 87.39 87.05 0.24
Pakistan 65.35 109.41 132.46 151.98 174.17 217.96 217.02 0.60
Palau 2.15 2.12 1.73 2.11 1.20 1.27 1.24 0.00
Panama 2.74 5.21 7.22 9.47 10.99 10.67 9.30 0.03
Papua New Guinea 2.11 2.77 4.85 4.38 6.37 7.35 7.26 0.02
Paraguay 2.27 3.75 3.93 5.33 6.55 8.95 7.84 0.02
Peru 20.89 29.03 31.87 45.78 54.79 55.08 44.48 0.12
Philippines 44.06 76.89 81.81 87.51 116.70 150.10 139.16 0.39
Poland 372.61 313.28 317.79 329.37 306.05 312.92 292.56 0.81
Portugal 43.61 64.53 68.15 53.51 52.24 47.83 40.43 0.11
Puerto Rico 0.92 1.69 2.31 2.34 4.17 4.17 3.96 0.01
Qatar 17.01 31.79 43.61 68.97 96.18 108.57 99.49 0.28
Réunion 1.02 2.30 2.56 2.77 2.66 2.90 2.41 0.01
Romania 186.65 97.05 104.68 82.61 79.44 80.77 75.80 0.21
Russia 2395.27 1673.01 1734.85 1733.51 1733.37 1777.91 1674.23 4.66
Rwanda 0.57 0.60 0.61 0.68 0.98 1.18 1.01 0.00
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.00
Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.05 0.15 0.17 0.20 0.25 0.16 0.14 0.00
Saint Lucia 0.17 0.28 0.31 0.36 0.44 0.33 0.29 0.00
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.23 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.00
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.07 0.12 0.18 0.19 0.23 0.13 0.12 0.00
Samoa 0.11 0.14 0.17 0.18 0.32 0.36 0.36 0.00
São Tomé and Príncipe 0.04 0.06 0.10 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.13 0.00
Saudi Arabia 173.48 265.15 347.26 487.93 611.59 593.33 588.81 1.64
Senegal 2.40 4.04 5.80 7.05 9.28 10.94 10.06 0.03
Serbia and Montenegro 66.41 66.15 82.27 85.81 83.20 89.72 77.53 0.22
Seychelles 0.31 0.90 1.08 0.99 1.00 1.20 1.18 0.00
Sierra Leone 0.76 0.46 0.58 0.74 1.02 1.11 1.01 0.00
Singapore 31.64 45.54 41.81 49.06 55.43 56.70 56.11 0.16
Slovakia 60.49 41.65 42.16 39.90 34.52 34.65 31.87 0.09
Slovenia 16.63 15.68 18.33 17.90 15.09 15.24 13.78 0.04
Solomon Islands 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.23 0.31 0.31 0.00
Somalia 0.73 0.73 0.83 0.84 0.82 0.93 0.77 0.00
South Africa 313.67 346.60 434.64 460.44 456.85 467.90 435.13 1.21
South Korea 271.08 483.98 516.46 598.90 643.24 663.00 621.47 1.73
Spain and Andorra 232.07 314.32 371.53 291.33 273.71 255.83 214.85 0.60
Sri Lanka 4.25 11.47 14.54 13.83 21.56 25.82 23.73 0.07
Sudan and South Sudan 5.59 6.04 10.93 16.90 21.05 23.60 19.95 0.06
Suriname 1.56 1.48 1.69 1.72 2.09 1.90 1.64 0.00
Sweden 58.11 58.43 55.97 53.51 44.13 44.68 42.30 0.12
Switzerland and Liechtenstein 44.96 44.93 47.19 46.49 40.31 39.74 35.30 0.10
Syria 33.03 45.82 58.78 63.67 25.88 26.20 25.57 0.07
Taiwan 124.64 230.98 274.20 277.53 276.18 283.84 280.56 0.78
Tajikistan 12.27 2.86 3.28 3.13 5.18 8.32 9.00 0.03
Tanzania 2.11 3.11 5.97 7.29 11.79 12.76 11.47 0.03
Thailand 93.34 173.51 227.42 247.02 279.01 269.12 255.46 0.71
The Gambia 0.14 0.31 0.36 0.48 0.52 0.58 0.52 0.00
Timor-Leste 0.15 0.37 0.33 1.48 1.37 1.03 1.01 0.00
Togo 0.77 1.27 1.33 2.54 2.47 3.09 2.84 0.01
Tonga 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.10 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.00
Trinidad and Tobago 12.67 18.80 34.25 40.60 36.31 33.23 30.27 0.08
Tunisia 14.75 21.19 23.44 28.04 30.77 30.70 28.59 0.08
Turkey 150.38 226.57 244.61 310.81 366.25 413.65 405.20 1.13
Turkmenistan 45.64 39.37 52.95 61.63 75.91 81.38 80.64 0.22
Turks and Caicos Islands 0.00 0.06 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.22 0.19 0.00
Uganda 0.67 1.62 2.40 4.17 5.19 6.20 5.35 0.01
Ukraine 783.49 357.27 353.20 309.19 220.71 196.80 189.30 0.53
United Arab Emirates 56.94 88.53 122.47 172.03 208.15 212.83 203.14 0.56
United Kingdom 587.94 552.00 562.10 502.02 419.49 359.42 313.73 0.87
United States 5067.50 6004.32 5950.70 5571.87 5179.69 5036.05 4535.30 12.61
Uruguay 3.92 5.47 5.53 6.42 6.84 6.75 5.88 0.02
Uzbekistan 123.13 122.31 114.79 111.00 101.99 90.77 90.37 0.25
Vanuatu 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.13 0.15 0.18 0.17 0.00
Venezuela 102.74 132.92 153.45 189.33 172.33 108.78 88.95 0.25
Vietnam 20.53 56.52 100.43 156.84 219.43 328.18 321.93 0.90
Western Sahara 0.15 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.23 0.19 0.00
Yemen 7.09 15.73 21.99 26.32 14.44 10.64 10.32 0.03
Zambia 3.02 1.96 2.46 2.29 4.53 8.11 7.50 0.02
Zimbabwe 17.21 14.52 11.41 10.27 12.85 12.06 11.56 0.03

Sources and references

BP (2021), Statistical Review of World Energy (link), Last access July 2021.

IEA (2019), Energy balance statistics for 1970-2017 (link), Data release 2019.

Olivier, J.G.J. and Peters, J.A.H.W., Trend in Global CO2 and GHG Emissions 2021 Report, PBL Report, forthcoming, 2021.

IFA (2021), Urea consumption (updates 2010-2018) and production (updates 2008-2019) statistics, 2021 (link)

IMF/World Economic Outlook Database (2021) (link) last access June 2021.

UNDP (2019), population statistics (2019), World Population Prospects (WPP), The 2019 Revision Report United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2019.

USGS (2021), USGS Commodity Statistics (June 2021), (link), 2021.

WB (2021), data of GDP, (PPP constant 2017 international $) (expressed in 1000 US dollar, and adjusted to the Purchasing Power Parity of 2017) for 1990-2020, World Bank, July 2021

World Steel Association, worldsteel (2021), Steel Statistical Yearbook 2020 concise version

Contacts

For more information or data: JRC-EDGAR@ec.europa.eu