CO2 emissions of all world countries

2022 report

Introduction

Since the beginning of 21st century and until 2019, global GHG emissions had followed an increasing trend mainly due to the increase in CO2 emissions from China and the other emerging economies. As a result, the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases substantially increased enhancing the natural greenhouse effect, which may negatively affect the life on the Earth.

In 2020 global fossil CO2 emissions decreased by 5.3% in comparison to 2019, mainly because of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, in 2021, global emissions bounced back almost to the level of 2019, reaching 37.9 Gt, just 0.36% lower than in 2019, with the world getting back to pre-pandemic CO2 emission levels.

In the framework of UNFCCC, countries are developing national emissions inventories and propose/implement actions to mitigate GHG emissions. CO2 emissions, which are the main responsible for global warming are still increasing at world level despite climate change mitigation agreements. In this context, EDGAR provides an independent estimate of greenhouse gases for each world country, based on a robust and consistent methodology stemming from the latest IPCC guidelines and most recent activity data. Following the latest update released in September 2022, emission data are now available for fossil CO2 for each country for the time period 1970-2021 while national emissions for other GHGs are available for 1970-2018.

2022 report
CO2 emissions of all world countries

Main findings

In 2021, China, the United States, the EU27, India, Russia and Japan remained the world’s largest CO2 emitters. Together they account for 49.2% of global population, 62.4% of global Gross Domestic Product, 66.4% of global fossil fuel consumption and 67.8% of global fossil CO2 emissions. All six increased their fossil CO2 emissions in 2021 compared to 2020, with India and Russia having the largest increases in relative terms (10.5% and 8.1%, respectively).

Among the 16 major emitters accounting for more than 1% of global CO2 emissions, seven countries (China, India, Russia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, and Türkiye) have higher CO2 emissions in 2021 than in 2019 with Türkiye showing the highest biannual increase (+7.9%).

By comparison, the EU27 and eight other countries (United States, Japan, South Korea, Indonesia, Canada, South Africa, Mexico, and Australia) emitted less in 2021 than in 2019, with Mexico showing the largest biannual decrease (-13%).

Similarly, global per capita CO2 emissions bounced back to the pre-pandemic levels, bringing back with the overall have increased from 1990 to 2021 to 13% (from 4.26 t CO2/cap/yr to 4.81 t CO2/cap/yr).

In 2020, regardless the important decrease of GDP observed in the majority of world countries, global fossil CO2 emissions per unit of GDP continued their decreasing trend. On the contrary in 2021 in several countries emissions bounced back more than GDP recovery, resulting in an increase of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP (+1.1% in EU27, +0.7% in US, +1.5% in India, +3.1% in Russia and + 1.1% in Japan)

EU27, total fossil CO2 emissions increased by 6.5% (0.17 Gt) in 2021 compared with 2020. However, this increase is just half of the reduction that took place between 2019 and 2020 (-10.8%), consequently the EU27 emissions fell by 5% between 2021 and 2019.

From a longer-term perspective, fossil CO2 emissions in the EU27 have followed a decreasing trend over the past two decades, and in 2021 they were 2.78 Gt, i.e., 27.4% below the 1990 level. The EU27’s share of global emissions has also decreased over the last years, from 16.8% in 1990 to 8.5% in 2015 and 7.3% in 2021.


CO2 emissions (2021 vs 1990)

How to cite

Crippa, M., Guizzardi, D., Banja, M., Solazzo, E., Muntean, M., Schaaf, E., Pagani, F., Monforti-Ferrario, F., Olivier, J., Quadrelli, R., Risquez Martin, A., Taghavi-Moharamli, P., Grassi, G., Rossi, S., Jacome Felix Oom, D., Branco, A., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J. and Vignati, E., CO2 emissions of all world countries - 2022 Report, EUR 31182 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2022, doi:10.2760/730164, JRC130363

Data Download

CO2 emissions of all world countries - JRC/IEA/PBL 2022 Report
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EDGARv7.0 FT2021 fossil CO2 booklet 2022
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Fossil CO2 emissions by country

The data are presented in the table below for key years, to allow easy comparison of different countries.

"Country names" are consistent with the Interinstitutional Style Guide of the European Commission, the "Short name" definition listed in the "List of countries, territories and currencies" table has been used (as of 01/09/2022)

EDGAR data are expressed in metric units.



Country 1990 2000 2005 2015 2019 2020 2021 2021 %
unit Mton Mton Mton Mton Mton Mton Mton % World Tot
EU27 3819.23 3577.21 3698.94 3097.97 2922.05 2605.12 2774.93 7.33
GLOBAL TOTAL 22717.73 25834.97 30161.57 36301.98 37993.28 35960.67 37857.58 100.00
Afghanistan 2.91 1.08 1.32 8.36 8.08 8.18 8.35 0.02
Albania 6.65 3.27 4.21 4.92 5.04 4.71 4.59 0.01
Algeria 68.00 83.73 98.61 161.48 177.92 168.95 173.00 0.46
Angola 11.30 16.61 15.98 32.59 25.33 23.06 24.45 0.06
Anguilla 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.00
Antigua and Barbuda 0.43 0.49 0.71 1.08 0.85 0.70 0.78 0.00
Argentina 100.66 139.43 158.69 199.42 183.17 171.86 189.00 0.50
Armenia 20.70 3.66 4.55 5.41 6.26 6.38 6.77 0.02
Aruba 0.52 0.94 1.37 1.61 1.39 1.14 1.27 0.00
Australia 278.21 354.78 386.39 396.10 406.76 376.78 367.91 0.97
Austria 62.72 67.98 81.18 68.33 69.96 63.32 66.01 0.17
Azerbaijan 54.64 28.06 30.49 32.54 36.46 35.98 37.11 0.10
Bahamas 2.83 3.40 2.83 3.62 4.40 3.63 4.04 0.01
Bahrain 11.99 17.77 23.36 33.48 36.75 36.47 37.49 0.10
Bangladesh 14.41 27.56 39.94 83.53 104.84 104.14 106.87 0.28
Barbados 1.37 1.60 1.80 2.20 1.91 1.59 1.77 0.00
Belarus 108.99 56.92 61.30 59.81 62.04 57.09 58.36 0.15
Belgium 116.63 125.74 119.34 102.77 100.29 90.71 95.92 0.25
Belize 0.33 0.50 0.64 0.94 0.67 0.56 0.64 0.00
Benin 0.42 1.57 2.84 5.83 8.12 8.03 8.63 0.02
Bermuda 0.66 0.54 0.76 0.90 0.89 0.74 0.82 0.00
Bhutan 0.18 0.42 0.55 1.30 1.89 1.78 1.98 0.01
Bolivia 6.59 8.22 10.07 20.62 22.63 20.25 22.43 0.06
Bosnia and Herzegovina 24.68 14.36 16.93 20.90 22.77 22.55 15.37 0.04
Botswana 2.83 4.19 4.47 7.09 7.38 6.71 7.00 0.02
Brazil 228.60 364.75 385.32 527.94 478.17 441.37 489.86 1.29
British Virgin Islands 0.05 0.13 0.30 0.41 0.20 0.16 0.18 0.00
Brunei 3.34 4.89 5.18 6.52 7.35 7.20 7.21 0.02
Bulgaria 79.14 47.82 51.97 48.40 43.06 37.80 43.64 0.12
Burkina Faso 0.41 1.01 1.27 3.81 5.00 4.95 5.29 0.01
Burundi 0.25 0.34 0.21 0.42 0.75 0.67 0.71 0.00
Cabo Verde 0.06 0.32 0.66 0.76 0.86 0.85 0.92 0.00
Cambodia 0.42 2.00 2.70 8.52 16.17 16.48 16.96 0.04
Cameroon 4.81 5.79 5.54 9.26 10.45 9.81 10.20 0.03
Canada 443.26 545.03 578.00 586.65 608.49 548.45 563.54 1.49
Cayman Islands 0.30 0.48 0.63 0.96 0.94 0.77 0.86 0.00
Central African Republic 0.20 0.30 0.29 0.23 0.28 0.26 0.28 0.00
Chad 0.29 0.29 0.51 1.56 2.23 2.04 2.21 0.01
Chile 33.02 53.43 58.88 84.07 94.01 83.50 85.70 0.23
China 2425.64 3703.34 6338.44 10771.82 11771.07 11948.12 12466.32 32.93
Colombia 52.41 61.53 60.12 81.17 83.44 73.04 77.57 0.20
Comoros 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.16 0.30 0.26 0.28 0.00
Congo 2.40 4.54 4.36 5.78 7.30 7.46 7.37 0.02
Cook Islands 0.04 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.00
Costa Rica 2.93 5.14 6.35 7.74 8.47 7.25 8.09 0.02
Côte d’Ivoire 3.03 7.06 6.55 11.60 13.43 13.64 14.54 0.04
Croatia 25.16 19.61 23.64 18.45 18.49 17.19 18.00 0.05
Cuba 38.54 28.96 26.19 29.44 26.03 21.82 24.61 0.06
Curaçao 2.67 5.67 6.03 5.31 2.21 1.83 2.04 0.01
Cyprus 4.47 6.97 7.85 6.83 7.26 6.43 6.75 0.02
Czechia 162.94 130.40 127.04 105.88 102.21 92.38 97.69 0.26
Democratic Republic of the Congo 3.44 1.97 2.59 3.57 3.37 3.22 3.37 0.01
Denmark 53.53 54.01 51.39 35.19 30.69 25.96 27.28 0.07
Djibouti 1.17 0.83 0.82 0.78 0.64 0.57 0.61 0.00
Dominica 0.06 0.16 0.33 0.41 0.21 0.17 0.19 0.00
Dominican Republic 8.04 19.02 18.83 23.88 27.62 25.04 27.73 0.07
Ecuador 17.59 22.06 28.29 42.30 40.66 34.03 41.14 0.11
Egypt 91.05 127.21 177.62 240.84 268.28 243.29 259.32 0.68
El Salvador 2.64 5.83 7.07 7.60 8.56 7.37 8.18 0.02
Equatorial Guinea 0.07 3.00 9.15 7.62 6.55 6.66 7.00 0.02
Eritrea 0.32 0.67 0.61 0.65 0.88 0.79 0.84 0.00
Estonia 37.48 16.96 19.66 19.89 15.04 13.86 14.91 0.04
Eswatini 1.37 2.84 3.00 1.14 1.59 1.45 1.51 0.00
Ethiopia 2.10 3.74 5.32 13.39 19.79 18.17 19.21 0.05
Falkland Islands 0.02 0.06 0.22 0.24 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.00
Faroes 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fiji 1.00 1.57 1.78 1.53 1.66 1.67 1.73 0.00
Finland 57.28 57.87 58.31 46.06 43.80 38.25 38.99 0.10
France and Monaco 385.25 401.75 407.70 334.79 323.38 279.26 302.33 0.80
French Guiana 0.67 0.55 0.75 0.75 0.82 0.78 0.84 0.00
French Polynesia 0.84 0.78 0.97 0.95 0.93 0.94 0.97 0.00
Gabon 6.17 6.61 6.39 6.44 5.58 5.51 5.52 0.01
Georgia 34.75 5.38 4.98 10.29 11.67 11.24 11.65 0.03
Germany 1019.08 878.41 843.52 788.61 701.62 629.10 665.88 1.76
Ghana 3.18 6.12 7.23 15.85 21.00 21.58 23.64 0.06
Gibraltar 0.14 0.34 0.41 0.59 0.72 0.65 0.67 0.00
Greece 79.09 97.10 104.86 70.56 62.82 52.22 53.37 0.14
Greenland 0.00 0.00 0.62 0.52 0.51 0.45 0.46 0.00
Grenada 0.13 0.23 0.40 0.55 0.37 0.31 0.34 0.00
Guadeloupe 1.58 1.90 2.09 2.04 1.95 1.63 1.81 0.00
Guatemala 3.91 9.68 11.69 17.06 19.93 17.43 20.19 0.05
Guinea 1.14 1.66 1.93 2.78 3.26 3.22 3.44 0.01
Guinea-Bissau 0.21 0.23 0.30 0.35 0.30 0.30 0.32 0.00
Guyana 1.18 1.67 1.49 2.08 2.84 2.69 2.90 0.01
Haiti 1.15 1.70 1.84 3.45 3.51 2.94 3.24 0.01
Honduras 2.37 5.06 7.13 9.96 10.24 8.71 9.75 0.03
Hong Kong 35.08 41.55 42.68 44.15 43.42 32.81 33.21 0.09
Hungary 72.18 58.39 60.04 47.45 50.93 49.40 50.69 0.13
Iceland 2.34 2.87 3.17 3.66 3.25 2.71 2.91 0.01
India 600.03 994.86 1215.21 2258.49 2563.67 2396.34 2648.78 7.00
Indonesia 161.64 297.05 361.45 513.08 647.46 591.32 602.59 1.59
International Aviation 258.99 352.63 418.84 524.65 617.76 338.14 390.17 1.03
International Shipping 370.99 502.13 571.64 659.84 684.84 667.04 699.72 1.85
Iran 204.82 352.77 467.95 629.37 669.80 690.86 710.83 1.88
Iraq 69.33 88.64 87.17 137.13 181.74 165.77 177.85 0.47
Ireland 32.86 44.33 47.36 38.37 36.80 32.92 35.01 0.09
Israel and Palestine, State of 35.33 59.46 62.26 68.17 64.63 59.91 59.59 0.16
Italy, San Marino and the Holy See 430.45 457.93 498.02 355.80 334.44 295.42 319.67 0.84
Jamaica 7.53 10.22 10.63 7.09 8.45 7.23 8.08 0.02
Japan 1171.76 1252.93 1286.04 1242.94 1142.06 1054.90 1084.69 2.87
Jordan 10.09 16.50 20.32 25.65 25.20 23.51 24.30 0.06
Kazakhstan 251.79 131.42 182.63 200.07 222.85 212.89 211.21 0.56
Kenya 6.48 8.62 8.87 17.59 22.98 21.11 22.43 0.06
Kiribati 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.00
Kuwait 32.38 54.33 75.24 94.47 96.70 91.12 98.08 0.26
Kyrgyzstan 23.71 4.87 5.50 10.46 10.44 9.73 10.78 0.03
Laos 0.25 0.94 1.31 8.93 19.42 20.21 20.56 0.05
Latvia 20.43 7.57 8.24 7.83 8.08 6.94 7.21 0.02
Lebanon 5.98 15.30 16.60 26.88 27.74 24.97 25.77 0.07
Lesotho 0.13 0.40 0.45 0.57 0.69 0.63 0.65 0.00
Liberia 0.45 0.46 0.75 1.19 1.36 1.35 1.44 0.00
Libya 32.57 49.28 57.65 53.80 59.27 48.89 63.28 0.17
Lithuania 35.32 11.81 14.12 13.43 14.03 13.56 13.82 0.04
Luxembourg 11.75 8.84 12.17 9.35 9.70 8.16 8.45 0.02
Macao 0.94 1.59 2.10 2.62 2.58 2.60 2.66 0.01
Madagascar 0.81 1.96 2.20 4.52 5.36 4.96 5.30 0.01
Malawi 0.93 1.46 1.57 1.33 1.87 1.71 1.82 0.00
Malaysia 57.51 132.52 181.81 252.61 266.21 256.19 251.56 0.66
Maldives 0.09 0.68 0.70 1.50 2.12 2.13 2.21 0.01
Mali 0.40 0.93 1.06 3.39 5.59 5.52 5.92 0.02
Malta 2.35 2.16 2.67 1.72 1.72 1.62 1.75 0.00
Martinique 1.68 2.10 2.21 2.14 2.07 1.72 1.90 0.01
Mauritania 0.77 1.19 1.67 2.65 4.01 3.96 4.26 0.01
Mauritius 1.19 2.45 2.98 3.99 4.21 3.86 4.13 0.01
Mexico 291.04 397.97 448.86 491.48 481.46 401.13 418.35 1.11
Moldova 31.96 6.82 8.28 8.20 9.06 8.94 9.55 0.03
Mongolia 13.16 9.05 11.12 17.62 23.56 24.53 24.99 0.07
Morocco 22.45 33.50 44.44 61.39 72.42 67.43 73.97 0.20
Mozambique 1.18 1.60 2.70 6.52 8.70 8.03 8.64 0.02
Myanmar/Burma 4.47 10.09 11.16 19.65 39.00 39.70 40.05 0.11
Namibia 1.50 1.95 2.59 4.20 4.25 3.95 4.07 0.01
Nepal 1.10 3.42 3.30 7.36 13.62 13.93 14.31 0.04
Netherlands 161.44 176.70 181.96 170.69 158.80 143.11 146.87 0.39
New Caledonia 1.57 2.29 2.76 4.62 5.41 5.56 5.70 0.02
New Zealand 24.04 33.67 37.10 35.97 38.10 33.30 32.60 0.09
Nicaragua 1.97 3.77 4.41 5.44 5.26 4.47 5.00 0.01
Niger 0.63 0.70 0.80 2.16 2.29 2.26 2.47 0.01
Nigeria 74.77 99.97 100.60 110.09 120.26 120.34 127.03 0.34
North Korea 131.98 73.90 79.86 27.99 58.53 61.08 62.57 0.17
North Macedonia 11.21 9.05 9.68 7.94 8.62 7.16 7.51 0.02
Norway 37.45 42.92 44.29 47.20 43.35 41.67 42.33 0.11
Oman 15.58 25.32 33.00 79.29 86.46 85.63 94.62 0.25
Pakistan 65.35 109.41 132.46 174.17 201.01 202.05 219.79 0.58
Palau 2.15 2.12 1.73 1.20 1.27 1.28 1.32 0.00
Panama 2.74 5.21 7.12 10.64 13.15 11.15 12.51 0.03
Papua New Guinea 2.13 3.16 5.37 5.67 6.30 6.39 6.57 0.02
Paraguay 2.27 3.75 3.93 6.75 8.73 8.27 8.89 0.02
Peru 20.89 29.03 31.87 54.60 57.58 46.59 55.14 0.15
Philippines 44.29 75.79 80.73 114.28 150.67 138.70 147.96 0.39
Poland 372.04 313.29 317.81 306.07 311.97 295.93 320.77 0.85
Portugal 43.61 64.53 68.15 52.24 47.04 39.58 38.68 0.10
Puerto Rico 0.88 1.68 2.33 4.17 1.24 1.21 1.26 0.00
Qatar 17.01 31.79 43.61 98.61 105.35 94.73 97.69 0.26
Réunion 1.09 2.29 2.57 2.70 2.82 2.42 2.58 0.01
Romania 186.67 97.06 103.41 79.80 80.47 73.08 78.75 0.21
Russia 2395.64 1673.22 1735.03 1732.16 1881.71 1797.60 1942.54 5.13
Rwanda 0.58 0.65 0.68 1.01 1.30 1.17 1.24 0.00
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.00
Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.05 0.20 0.37 0.50 0.31 0.26 0.29 0.00
Saint Lucia 0.19 0.36 0.54 0.75 0.78 0.64 0.71 0.00
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 0.24 0.09 0.25 0.31 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.00
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.08 0.18 0.39 0.48 0.25 0.21 0.23 0.00
Samoa 0.12 0.20 0.22 0.31 0.35 0.35 0.36 0.00
São Tomé and Príncipe 0.05 0.06 0.10 0.14 0.16 0.14 0.15 0.00
Saudi Arabia 173.48 265.15 346.34 611.42 577.44 574.92 586.40 1.55
Senegal 2.40 4.04 5.80 9.26 11.36 11.14 11.98 0.03
Serbia and Montenegro 66.44 50.84 61.53 57.64 57.90 57.72 39.35 0.10
Seychelles 0.32 0.86 1.05 0.94 0.99 1.01 1.05 0.00
Sierra Leone 0.77 0.49 0.63 1.00 0.95 0.94 1.01 0.00
Singapore 31.64 45.54 41.81 55.36 56.84 55.80 58.18 0.15
Slovakia 60.50 41.12 42.16 34.52 34.82 33.11 37.48 0.10
Slovenia 16.65 15.70 18.34 15.07 15.61 14.37 14.17 0.04
Solomon Islands 0.16 0.26 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.00
Somalia 0.76 0.71 0.83 0.79 0.81 0.72 0.76 0.00
South Africa 313.67 346.60 434.63 458.82 470.52 427.82 435.52 1.15
South Korea 271.08 483.98 516.53 643.64 650.36 605.45 626.80 1.66
Spain and Andorra 232.12 314.32 371.54 273.71 256.81 212.47 231.91 0.61
Sri Lanka 4.25 11.47 14.54 21.56 25.51 24.54 23.86 0.06
Sudan and South Sudan 5.59 6.03 10.89 21.02 22.71 20.13 21.37 0.06
Suriname 1.62 1.48 1.69 2.73 2.66 2.50 2.71 0.01
Sweden 58.09 58.85 56.47 46.16 42.21 38.97 38.92 0.10
Switzerland and Liechtenstein 44.96 44.93 47.19 40.36 38.58 34.23 35.07 0.09
Syria 33.03 45.82 58.78 25.76 26.71 24.85 25.86 0.07
Taiwan 121.97 224.98 267.41 280.74 278.12 268.88 288.16 0.76
Tajikistan 12.27 2.86 3.28 5.18 9.69 9.21 10.13 0.03
Tanzania 2.11 3.11 5.97 11.79 13.48 12.51 13.41 0.04
Thailand 94.00 174.59 228.63 278.99 281.44 265.85 269.57 0.71
The Gambia 0.15 0.31 0.37 0.49 0.52 0.52 0.56 0.00
Timor-Leste 0.00 0.23 0.34 0.66 0.57 0.56 0.57 0.00
Togo 0.77 1.27 1.33 1.56 2.12 2.12 2.26 0.01
Tonga 0.09 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.00
Trinidad and Tobago 12.67 18.74 34.11 35.60 32.58 29.06 28.99 0.08
Tunisia 14.75 21.19 23.44 30.77 30.09 27.59 31.79 0.08
Turkmenistan 45.64 39.37 53.00 75.90 75.51 72.34 83.32 0.22
Turks and Caicos Islands 0.01 0.10 0.29 0.44 0.27 0.22 0.25 0.00
Türkiye 150.43 226.68 244.74 366.92 416.96 416.51 449.72 1.19
Uganda 0.71 1.61 2.40 5.18 7.13 6.47 6.82 0.02
Ukraine 783.50 357.27 353.20 220.53 199.58 189.72 185.46 0.49
United Arab Emirates 56.90 88.52 122.58 207.80 199.29 189.34 193.51 0.51
United Kingdom 587.95 552.00 562.09 419.39 367.65 318.92 335.36 0.89
United States 5067.48 6004.36 5950.65 5179.72 5011.10 4464.11 4752.08 12.55
Uruguay 3.94 5.54 5.53 6.78 6.68 6.29 6.79 0.02
Uzbekistan 126.01 127.18 121.35 103.98 122.77 122.15 125.65 0.33
Vanuatu 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.15 0.21 0.22 0.22 0.00
Venezuela 102.74 137.95 156.19 172.62 118.79 100.16 104.67 0.28
Vietnam 20.53 56.52 100.43 221.19 333.51 322.02 321.41 0.85
Western Sahara 0.15 0.26 0.26 0.24 0.23 0.20 0.24 0.00
Yemen 7.09 15.73 21.99 14.25 12.31 11.61 12.05 0.03
Zambia 3.02 1.96 2.46 5.31 7.08 6.62 7.01 0.02
Zimbabwe 17.21 14.52 11.41 12.88 12.09 11.44 12.29 0.03

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World Steel Association, (worldsteel) (2021), Steel Statistical Yearbook 2021, worldsteel.org/wp-content/uploads/2021-World-Steel-in-Figures.pdf.

Contacts

For more information or data: JRC-EDGAR@ec.europa.eu